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Medical Student Clinical

The Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE)

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
3
Abstract: 

OSVEs (Objective Structured Video Examinations) may be used to teach principles of effective interdisciplinary team-based transitional care.  First introduced at the Medical College of Wisconsin in the mid-1990s, the OSVEs were used as brief “trigger videos” demonstrating ACGME competencies to which trainees would respond by completing multiple-choice or fill-in-the blank questions.  The Geriatric Transitions OSVE (GT-OSVE) replaces the individual, paper-based exercise with an experiential, team-based exercise focused on transitions of care.  The GT-OSVE also addresses interprofessional (IPE) competencies, including the importance of understanding the roles of other health care professionals.  A series of three GT-OSVE cases was developed with HRSA Geriatric Academic Career Award support (#K01HP20487) to meet an unmet need in care transitions education.  Most existing care transitions educational materials focus on the time of hospital discharge.  The three GT-OSVE cases focus instead on post-hospital transitional care in various settings, including the outpatient primary care clinic, skilled nursing facility and assisted living facility.  The GT-OSVE case presented here (“Hospital to Outpatient Care Transition”) is the first case in this series and addresses the first post-hospital primary care outpatient visit.  The GT-OSVE “Hospital to Outpatient Care Transition” case is a required component of the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) rotation for third-year family medicine residents at the University of Utah.  These residents work with clinical pharmacy residents and physician assistant students to complete the GT-OSVE exercise.  The GT-OSVE was designed to be applicable to health professions trainees ranging from novice (e.g. preclinical medical student) to advanced (e.g. senior medical resident), and to be equally relevant to both interdisciplinary teams and teams whose members are all of the same discipline.

Educational objectives: 

Upon completion of this material you will be able to: 

1. Understand best practices in post-hospital transitional care.
2. Acquire practical experience in formulating a high-quality, team-based transitions plan.
3. Discuss the contributions of other health professions trainees in formulating effective transitions.

Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

Order of Resource Files


First, trainees should complete the pretest and self-efficacy survey.


Second, faculty facilitator(s) should consider emailing trainees the links to the online transitions and team functioning modules found in the optional advance preparation assignment document.  This content may be reviewed on each trainee’s own time prior to the didactic session.  The “Geriatric Interdisciplinary Team Training (GITT)” module is freely available; permission has been granted from the author of the “Transitions of Care:  Leaving the Hospital” module to use this module as an advance preparation assignment for the GT-OSVE.


Third, faculty should deliver the care transitions didactic presentation to trainees prior to the GT-OSVE exercise.  This didactic reinforces and expands upon the care transitions and team leadership content of the optional advance preparation assignment.


Fourth, on the day of the GT-OSVE exercise, faculty should ask each team member to discuss his or her role (e.g. resident, physician assistant, pharmacist, nurse, social worker).  A team leader (not necessarily the medical student or resident) should be identified.   Faculty should review the faculty and team leader instructions and discuss them with the team (see also “Facilitation Schema” below).  Trainees should then be provided with the hypothetical patient chart corresponding with Mr. John Coleman so that they have access to the same information as the resident physician depicted in the video.  Trainees should also be provided with the after-visit summary template that prompts them to consider Coleman’s “four pillars” of transitional care as well as barriers to transitional care.


Fifth, the video file, “Hospital to outpatient care transition,” should be shown.  The team leader should facilitate team discussion and should elicit the contributions of each team member.  After the team discussion, the team leader should present to faculty the transitions plan agreed upon by the team.  The faculty checklist of care transitions and team leadership domains should be used by faculty to help track the extent to which the team leader addresses key care transitions domains and identifies barriers to the transitions plan during his or her presentation of the transitions plan, and also the extent to which the team leader facilitates the transitions plan among the team. Finally, each trainee should complete the post-test and self-efficacy survey.


Practical implementation advice
The GT-OSVE case, “Hospital to Outpatient Care Transition,” was designed to ease the scheduling demands often inherent in interdisciplinary education.   Since this GT-OSVE case presents a videotaped encounter with a standardized patient, programs do not need to compensate or schedule standardized patients.  Required materials include a computer with Internet access, PowerPoint slides, and hard copies of ancillary materials including pretest and posttest surveys, faculty and team leader instructions, hypothetical patient chart materials, after-visit summary template and faculty checklist.  Optional materials include the advance preparation assignment and a projector and screen, although the video case can be displayed on a laptop with small groups.  Trainees will require 40 minutes to review the online modules prior to GT-OSVE administration.  Faculty should allow approximately 60 minutes on the day of the GT-OSVE exercise to include the following activities: explanation of the GT-OSVE exercise (10 minutes), viewing of the “Hospital to Outpatient Care Transition” video case (10 to 15 minutes), team formulation of the transitions plan (10 minutes), presentation of the transitions plan by the team leader to faculty (5 minutes), faculty debrief and team discussion (10 minutes) and completion of the posttest survey (5 minutes).  At least one faculty member must be present to set up the video and hard copy materials, introduce the case and debrief trainees at the end of the session.  Whenever possible, faculty from additional disciplines should participate to enrich the feedback provided to trainees during the debriefing component.  Estimated faculty preparation time includes reviewing the online modules (40 minutes), PowerPoint slides and GT-OSVE case (60 minutes), and hard copy materials (30 minutes).

Strategies to avoid potential pitfalls
We have noticed several potential pitfalls when administering the GT-OSVE “Hospital to Outpatient Care Transition” case.  First, depending on the personality of the trainees involved, one trainee sometimes dominates the team discussion.  In order to ensure that each trainee contributes to the transitions plan equitably, we created the after-visit summary template containing the “four pillars” of effective care transitions as well as a fifth component (barriers to an effective transition).  We ask each trainee to jot down notes on this after-visit summary template as they watch the GT-OSVE with the expectation that the team leader will elicit and integrate the contributions of each trainee.  This approach has reduced the tendency of one team member to dominate the discussion.  Second, we noticed that the 4 minute and 36 second pre-visit planning section section (from 0:00 to 4:36) and the 3 minute and 14 second post-visit planning section of the GT-OSVE “Hospital to Outpatient Care Transition” video (from 12:01-15:15), which depicts a resident physician modeling pre and post-visit planning with a medical assistant and a care manager, can prompt trainees with numerous items to include in the transitions plan.  As a result, we generally reserve the pre and post-visit planning sections of this GT-OSVE case for more novice teams of trainees, such as preclinical medical students, who are less likely than more advanced trainees to be familiar with the medical home setting.  This reduces the length of the video to 9 minutes and 10 seconds (4:37 – 12:00 and 15:16-17:03). Third, we noticed that stopping the video at 12:00 (just after the conversation with Mr. Coleman and his daughter-in-law) works well since, when trainees viewed the end of the clinical encounter (15:16 – 17:03) before discussing the case as a team, they provided feedback that the office visit was over and that parts of the transitions plan had already been presented in the video before they had an opportunity to formulate their own transitions plan.  We now play the last part of the clinical encounter (15:16-17:03) after the trainees present their transition plan.  This approach has worked well since the final segment demonstrates that even a carefully crafted transitions plan might not succeed if the patient is not fully engaged in the plan.  Finally, there may be instances in which more than one trainee from a single discipline is present (e.g. two physician assistant students).  When this occurs, we encourage the “duplicate” trainee to consider attending to aspects of the case they might not often address (e.g. nutritional, psychosocial, or functional issues).  We feel this approach helps increase trainees’ appreciation for the roles of other disciplines, even when trainees from other disciplines are not present, and also demonstrates that team members’ roles can often overlap.


Limitations of the resource and opportunities for improvement
The most important limitation of the GT-OSVE involves its videotaped format.  Although the videotaped standardized patient encounter ensures lack of variability in the case from session to session, we are unable to reproduce the spontaneity of live interactions between trainees and the standardized patient.  However, faculty can rewind the video to replay particularly noteworthy video clips and use this technique as a basis for discussion with their trainees.  The GT-OSVE could also serve as a training video to create a live OSCE session dedicated to care transitions.  We also recognize that the length of time (25 to 30 minutes) allotted for the team members to watch the video, formulate a transitions plan and present to a faculty preceptor may be longer than the time allotted during a real-world post-hospital primary care outpatient visit.  We mention in our faculty debrief to trainees that they may have less time to conduct real-world transitional care visits, and we emphasize that best practices in care transitions taught by the GT-OSVE case can be an organizing principle to help them structure what can otherwise be chaotic office visits following hospital discharge.  We also discuss in our faculty debrief to trainees the importance of other team members’ roles and working as a team to best meet the complex needs of vulnerable older adult patients in a timely fashion.

Permissions for Advance Preparation Assignment Materials

The GITT (Geriatrics Interdisciplinary Team Training) modules are freely available online from the Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing.

The online module entitled "Transitions of Care:  Leaving the Hospital" is used with permission from Kathyrn Eubank, MD.

Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

Publications
Farrell T, Brunker C (2015). GT-OSVE: A Method to Teach Effective Interdisciplinary Team-Based Post-Hospital Transitional Care [Web]. MedEdPORTAL Publications.  Available from: https://www.mededportal.org/publication/10129 http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10129 - See more at: https://www.mededportal.org/publication/10129#sthash.R35yConZ.dpuf.


Farrell TW, Brunker C, Wong B, Luptak M, Supiano KP (2015). Health professions trainees' satisfaction with the Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE) and self-efficacy in care transitions domains [Abstract]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(S1), S56.


Farrell TW, Brunker CB (2014). Tools you can use: geriatric structured video examination [Web]. John A. Hartford Foundation. Available from: http://www.jhartfound.org/blog/tools-you-can-use-geriatric-transitions-objective-structured-video-examination/


Presentations
Farrell TW. Health professions trainees' satisfaction with the Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE) and self-efficacy in care transitions domains. American Geriatrics Society 2015 Annual Scientific Meeting, National Harbor, MD.


Farrell TW, Brunker CP, Supiano KP (2015). The Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE): an interdisciplinary approach to teaching and assessing best practices in transitional care. University of Utah Division of Geriatics: Research in Progress series.


Farrell TW and Brunker CB (2014). The Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE): an interdisciplinary approach to teaching and assessing best practices in transitional care. Society for Social Work Leadership in Health Care (SSWLHC) 49th Annual Conference, Salt Lake City, UT.


Farrell TW (2014). Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE). Department of Veterans Affairs National GEC Leads Virtual Conference.


Farrell TW and Brunker CB (2014). Geriatrics Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE). HRSA Geriatric Academic Career Award: Quarterly Technical Assistance Call.


Farrell TW (2014).  Geriatrics Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE).  John A. Hartford Center of Geriatric Nursing Excellence annual site visit.


Luther B, Farrell TW, Wilson R (2014). Innovative methods of developing interprofessional education. University of Utah College of Nursing Care Management Workshop: Developing Skills of Change. Salt Lake City, UT.


Farrell TW. Objective structured video examinations (OSVEs) focused on transitions of care. Presented at Education Product Showcase, American Geriatrics Society 2013 Annual Scientific Meeting. Grapevine, TX.


Farrell TW, Brunker CB (2013). Geriatric transitions objective structured video examination (OSVE). Marketplace II session, Donald W. Reynolds Foundation 11th Annual Grantee Meeting. Coronado, CA.


Farrell TW, Brunker CB (2012). Geriatric transitions objective structured video examination (OSVE). Presented at Marketplace I session, Donald W. Reynolds Foundation 10th Annual Meeting. St. Louis, MO.


Farrell TW (2012). Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (OSVE).  John A. Hartford Center of Geriatric Nursing Excellence annual site visit. Salt Lake City, UT.


Farrell TW (2012).  Geriatrics Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE).  John A. Hartford Center of Geriatric Nursing Excellence annual site visit.  Salt Lake City, UT.


Farrell TW and Nagoshi M (2012).  Interprofessional education products developed by the University of Utah and the University of Hawaii. 'Geri-West' consortium conference call.


Citations
US Department of Health and Human Services.  Multiple chronic conditions resource summary:  Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE).  Available at:  http://www.hhs.gov/ash/initiatives/mcc/educational...

 

 

 

 

Date posted: 
Thu, 10/06/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Sun, 06/30/2019
Product Viewing Instructions: 
Each user is asked to indicate his or her name, degree, academic title, name of institution or organization, contact information, purpose for using OSVE videos, and disciplines of those using the videos.
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
The Geriatric Transitions Objective Structured Video Examination (GT-OSVE). POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

IMPACT/INTERACT: Improving Care Transitions to Post Acute Care

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

This one hour video lecture with accompanying PowerPoint slides provides an overview of the Impact/Interact quality improvement study being conducted at Vanderbilt Medical Center. The target audience is Interdisciplinary Health Care Professionals.

 

Educational objectives: 

Upon completion of this material you will be able to:

  • Discuss quality improvement goals of IMPACT and INTERACT studies.
 
Date posted: 
Wed, 03/23/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Wed, 03/23/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
IMPACT/INTERACT: Improving Care Transitions to Post Acute Care. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

PRIMED and READY: A Transitions of Care Pocket Card

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Abstract: 

     Transitions of care are important in improving patient safety and decreasing health care costs. Despite the necessity of education about this subject, there is often insufficient time to adequately teach internal medicine residents about performing care transitions. In many institutions, documentation of hospital discharge summaries, communication between transition sites, and patient education at the time of discharge need to be improved. Presented here is a pocket card consisting of two mnemonics which may be useful reminders for improving discharge summary documentation and transitions of care practices.
     One side of the card uses the mnemonic PRIMED to illustrate vital aspects of a discharge summary and stands for: Primary diagnosis, Return to, Inpatient course, Medication reconciliation, Exams and Expertise, and Destination and DNR status. The other side of the card uses the mnemonic READY as a reminder of steps needed to improve transitions of care and stands for: Referring and Receiving Providers, Educate, Anticipate needs, Discharge summary and Drugs, and Your contact information.

Educational objectives: 

To improve discharge summary documentation and transitions of care practices.

Date posted: 
Mon, 08/17/2015
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Thu, 03/01/2018
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
PRIMED and READY: A Transitions of Care Pocket Card. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2015 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

2015 Quick Reference App: Internal Medicine and Family Medicine Resident Geriatric Competencies

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Intended Learner Audiences: 
Product Information
Abstract: 

In 2010, the essential geriatric competencies for Internal Medicine (IM) and Family Medicine (FM) residents were published. To reinforce and disseminate these critical skills, we created a quick reference mobile application for IM and FM residents that addresses competencies in each of the seven key competency domains: Medication Management; Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Health; Complex or Chronic Illness; Palliative and End-of-Life Care; Hospital Patient Safety; Transitions of Care; and Ambulatory Care.

This application can be used as a comprehensive reference by learners of multiple levels and disciplines while caring for patients in a variety of settings, including inpatient wards, outpatient clinic, nursing homes and home visits. Various screening tools, criteria, mnemonics and guidelines supporting each competency are included in this concise guide to caring for aging adults.

To access the free app:

  1. Go to Geriatrics Quick Reference App on AgileMD
  2. Create a free AgileMD account  
  3. Download the free AgileMD application using your smartphone app store 
  4. Open the AgileMD app and login with the username and password you created
Educational objectives: 
After using this quick reference tool, learners will be able to:
1.) Select and apply evidence-based tools to screen for or assess geriatric syndromes.
2.) Asses for and manage issues affecting older adult health across seven key competency domains: Medication Management; Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Health; Complex or Chronic Illness; Palliative and End-of-Life Care; Hospital Patient Safety; Transitions of Care; and Ambulatory Care.
Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

AGS 2015 Educational Showcase Product Swap

Date posted: 
Mon, 09/28/2015
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Tue, 04/03/2018
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
2015 Quick Reference App: Internal Medicine and Family Medicine Resident Geriatric Competencies. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2015 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

Vascular Influences on Late-Life Depression

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

This one hour video lecture with accompanying PowerPoint slides provides an overview of vascular disease in late life depression. The target audience is Interdisciplinary Health Care Professionals.

Educational objectives: 

Upon completion of this material you will be able to:

  • Identify the relationship between vascular disease and late-life depression.
  • Identify theories on how vascular disease may contribute to depression.
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

This material is from the Geriatrics and Gerontology Interest Groups (GGIG) of Vanderbilt University

Date posted: 
Mon, 03/21/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 03/21/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Vascular Influences on Late-Life Depression. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

End Stage Dementia

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

This one hour video lecture with accompanying PowerPoint slides provides an overview advanced dementia and how to better prepare patients and families before the disease progresses to end stage. The target audience is Interdisciplinary Health Care Professionals. 

Educational objectives: 

Upon completion of this video lecture, you will be able to:

  • Recognize the signs of end stage dementia and know what medications are not recommended in end stage dementia.
  • Discuss the benefits and risks of tube feeds in dementia patients.

 

Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

This material is from the Geriatrics and Gerontology Interest Groups (GGIG) of Vanderbilt University

Date posted: 
Wed, 03/23/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Wed, 03/23/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
End Stage Dementia. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

Dementia: A Practical Approach

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

This one hour video lecture with accompanying PowerPoint slides provides an overview of dementia and how caregivers can better understand the progression of the disease and ways to provide support. The target audience is Interdisciplinary Health Care Professionals. 

 

This material is from the Geriatrics and Gerontology Interest Groups (GGIG) of Vanderbilt University

 

Educational objectives: 

Upon completion of this video lectures, you will be able to:

  • Identify a positive physical approach that will improve your interaction with patients with dementia.
  • Identify how to minimize difficult behaviors and elicit a positive response when giving care to patients with dementia.

 

Date posted: 
Wed, 03/23/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Wed, 03/23/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Dementia: A Practical Approach. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

Diabetes Management in Long Term Care

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

Guidelines for managing diabetes in older adults and particularly the long-term care population have changed significantly over recent years.  Changes have included redefining HbA1c goals based on patient comorbidities and function.  Additional emphasis has been placed on discontinuing the use of sliding scale insulin in the long-term care population.  The current guidelines are reviewed, and a practical approach to the day-to-day management of diabetes in long-term care is outlined.

Educational objectives: 

1. To review recommended HbA1c goals determined by patient comorbidities.

2. To review recommendations regarding the use of sliding scale insulin in LTC patients.

3. To outline a practical approach to the day-to-day management of diabetes in the long-term care setting.

Date posted: 
Tue, 05/26/2015
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Sun, 04/01/2018
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Diabetes Management in Long Term Care. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2015 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

Housecalls Pocket Card

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

This pocket card is designed to prepare learners to conduct a home visit.  The pocket card can be reviewed prior to a visit to help prepare the learner with appropriate equipment and materials (forms, medical supplies) and can help guide the learner during the visit to ensure that a thorough assessment is completed.

Educational objectives: 
  1. Prepare learner for conducting a home visit by identifying equipment needed, and outlining the visit
  2. Learn to thoroughly assess patients home for safety, including environmental risks, medication risks, and elder abuse
  3. Identify unmet needs in a home-bound patients by performing a thorough medical, functional and social assessment at home
  4. Perform a thorough medication review in the patients home
  5. Perform an assessment of function, based upon self-reported history, caregiver history and observation.
  6. Determine which services may need needed for a homebound adult
Date posted: 
Wed, 02/18/2015
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Wed, 02/18/2015
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Housecalls Pocket Card. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2015 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

SAGE Intrinsic Aging: A Histological Perspective: Urinary System Module

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Learning Resource Type: 
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

This module demonstrates the normal age-related changes in the urinary system and its clinical implications. A highlight of these modules are side by side comparison of young and aged tissues with interactive slides and summary drawings which reinforce the main points on the histology slides. The curriculum is appealing to clinical learners as it is anchored in showing clinically relevant changes and the implications of these changes in older patients. The main audience is the pre-clinical first or second year medical student, but these could be used by other trainees to teach the basic science of aging.

Educational objectives: 

Learning Objectives for Urinary System module:

Identify the major aging associated changes in each of the following and describe the clinical implications of these changes on the:

  1. Kidney
  2. Ureter
  3. Urethra - female
  4. Nerves
  5. Urethra - male
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

Southwestern Aging and Geriatrics Education (SAGE) Program

Lead Author: Judith R. Head, PhD

Medical Illustrator: Lindsay Oksenberg, MA

Geriatrician:  Amit Shah, MD

Special thanks to histology technician: Brie Thaden Pirkle and Tasha Buxton

Date posted: 
Thu, 12/18/2014
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Thu, 12/18/2014
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
SAGE Intrinsic Aging: A Histological Perspective: Urinary System Module. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2014 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/247

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