The Portal of Geriatrics Online Education

Intro to Clinical Medicine/Clinical Skills/Doctoring

Cognitive Screening and Functional Assessment OSCE

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
3
Abstract: 

This product contains materials for the completion of a Cognitive Screening and Functional Assessment OSCE. Instructional guides for the standardized patients, the student, and the preceptors are included. There is a template for the evaluation of the student's performance, completion of the Mini-Cog, and documentation of the plan for the patient. Finally, the product includes a description of the proposed timing, a student self assessment, and an evaluation form for the OSCE.

Educational objectives: 

On completion, the learner will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate the use of the Mini-Cog for the evaluation of a patient with suspected cognitive impairment
  2. Demonstrate the use of the Get-Up and Go Test on a patient who has fallen
  3. Develop a preliminary management plan for a patient with gait abnormalities and cognitive impairment

  4.  
Date posted: 
Fri, 01/11/2013
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Fri, 04/13/2018
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
and . Cognitive Screening and Functional Assessment OSCE. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2013 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Interprofessional Team Care Symposium for Medical Students

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
2
Abstract: 

The successful medical care of adults with multiple medical, functional and social problems requires the expertise of multiple health disciplines working together effectively. Physicians must be aware of the skills of the interprofessional health disciplines and learn how to work effectively in teams. This product describes a two hour, interactive intensive introduction to the training and roles of the interprofessional health care team members taught by faculty from nursing, physical therapy, occupation therapy, speech therapy, pharmacy, audiology, nutrition, social work and medicine. The format is a fast moving, interactive health team fair based on a case of an older adult recovering from a stroke. 

After a brief introduction and review of the stroke case, medical students in groups of 5-8 move from station to station in 10-15 minute intervals. At each station, faculty from a health care discipline describe their educational background and discuss how they will assist the students to manage the stroke case. At the last station students receive a case summary and a packet of descriptions summarizing each of the health care disciplines. 

 

Educational objectives: 

Participating medical students will be able to:

  1. Describe the training required to enter eight different health professions.
  2. List one or more clinical problems that might benefit from collaboration with eight different health professions.
  3. Apply the knowledge of the clinical skills of other health disciplines to provide care to an older adult recovering from a stroke.
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

This curriculum requires:

Recruitment of teaching faculty from allied health colleges or hospital departments.

A large, open space, such as might be used for a research poster session (e.g., large entry hall way) or multiple small classrooms that are close to each other as might be used for medical student small gorup learning communities.

Two hours of curriculum time for 50-80 students; for larger class sizes the session will need to be repeated two or three times to accomodate everyone.

Date posted: 
Tue, 07/15/2014
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Tue, 07/15/2014
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
, and . Interprofessional Team Care Symposium for Medical Students. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2014 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Caring Across the Continuum: Mrs. Porter Age 67

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

Caring Across the Continuum: An Aging Virtual Patient Series.  Case One: Mrs. Porter Age 67 - Introduction to Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment. This case, the first in a four-part series about the virtual patient, Mrs. Porter, highlights the main components of a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), set in an outpatient ambulatory setting. Mrs. Porter, age 67 in this case, is visiting Dr. Pat for the first time. Dr. Pat conducts a thorough social, physical and mental evaluation of Mrs. Porter. The skill of active listening is illustrated to emphasize the importance of taking a thorough patient history during the CGA. The Geriatric Gems in the case provide in-depth information and resources about a variety of geriatric health topics. The Gems in Case One include Smoking and Older Adults; Geriatric Functional Assessment; Immunization Guidelines for Older Adults; Elder Abuse and Mistreatment; Falls; and, Incontinence. The case concludes with a critical thinking activity inviting the learner to discuss the major differences between a CGA and standard adult medical exam. 

Educational objectives: 

On completion of Case One: Mrs. Porter Age 67, students will be able to:

  1. Define and describe select components of a comprehensive geriatric assessment
  2. Describe the differences between a routine medical evaluation and an evaluation of an older adult
  3. Summarize concepts presented within the case through descriptive patient study
  4. Address the following Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) geriatric competencies:
    1. Assess falls, balance, and gait of the virtual patient
    2. Assess functional abilities.
  5. Generate a problem list and recommendations for Mrs. Porter
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

This product is one part of a short series consisting of the following products:

As an innovative, virtual learning series, this web-based series of cases spans the 21-year relationship of care between geriatrician Dr. Patricia Thompson and her patient, Mrs. Alice Porter. This virtual learning experience for medical students, based on the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) competencies, is designed to pique interest and enhance knowledge and skills in the care of older adults. The web-based learning environment provides students the unique opportunity to observe and interact with Mrs. Porter, in an ongoing doctor-patient relationship, outside of the traditional classroom setting. The series exposes students to the importance of continuity of patient care, since each case correlates to a different year of medical school education. As the medical student advances in their curriculum, Mrs. Porter continues to age, requiring more complex care and further application of critical thinking skills from the student. Each case has a unique focus that targets key geriatric and/or palliative concepts appropriate to the level of the student that can easily be embedded into existing medical school courses.

The virtual cases allow students to explore approaches to the patient; observe model clinician-patient interactions; choose practice techniques; offer health promotion, palliative counseling, and patient counseling; and contemplate complex ethical decisions regarding the care of the patient in an innocuous, self-paced, virtual environment. The embedded natural language system in each case offers an opportunity to pose real-world questions and problems to the learner, with the goal of eliciting critical thinking skills and reflective learning.

The series offers a readily available complementary assignment to the classroom and clinical experience. The self-paced case studies contain video animation, an interactive electronic medical record, Geriatric Gems and Palliative Pearls, natural language style critical thinking, clinical reasoning and clinical judgment learning activities, and evidence-based expert explanations. Evaluative tools include a pre and post quiz and rubric-scored natural language short answer and essay questions. The natural language system provides hints to the students and evaluates their responses based on the information they provide. Student actions and choices are captured for formative evaluation, as well as to provide student feedback.

The virtual patient system is a web-based application that runs on Windows Server, running IIS with ASP enabled within IIS. The project database is Microsoft Access.

The first time you explore a case, you will need to register. There is a "Register" button at the bottom of the login form. Click this button to register or to have your password sent to the email address you entered when you registered.

On the popup registration form, you will need to enter an ID and a password. Your ID can be anything you wish. You can use the same User ID and password for any of the four cases. All of the other fields are optional. (The email field is optional. If you don't enter an email address when you register, the system can't send you your password and/or ID if you forget them.)

Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

Using a Virtual Patient to Teach the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment to Medical Students. Poster presented February 24, 2012 at the AGHE Annual Meeting and Educational Leadership Conference.

Instructional Design and Management of a Virtual World: A Second Life for Geriatric Education. Project Demonstration presented February 3, 2011 at The University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education Interprofessional Health Science Education Conference.

Instructional Design and Management in a Virtual Environment: A Second Life for Geriatric Education. Presented October 25, 2010 at the Ninth Annual Reynolds Grantee Meeting.

Date posted: 
Fri, 02/15/2013
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Fri, 02/15/2013
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
, , and . Caring Across the Continuum: Mrs. Porter Age 67. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2013 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Objective Structured Clinical Examination Case: Gina Babkins

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

The case of Gina Babkins is a standardized patient case designed for third and fourth year medical students. Gina Babkins is a 75-year-old woman who presents to the outpatient office with a complaint of lightheadedness. She asked to be seen prior to her scheduled appointment because she is concerned. The examinee's task is to obtain a focused history, perform a focused physical examination, and counsel the patient regarding her situation. Following the encounter, the examinee documents the encounter in a SOAP-style patient note.

Educational objectives: 

On completion, the educator will be able to assess the learner's ability to:

  • Perform a focused history & physical exam on a patient presenting with lightheadedness
  • Recognize dehydration secondary to medications
  • Create an appropriate plan for treatment of dehydration
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

This product was reviewed by the University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine.

Date posted: 
Thu, 10/18/2012
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 01/14/2013
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
, and . Objective Structured Clinical Examination Case: Gina Babkins. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2012 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Interprofessional Geriatric Oncology 3: The Older Adult Oncology Patient and Nutrition

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Intended Learner Audiences: 
Other Learning Resource Type: 
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

Nutrition for the older adult with cancer needs to be assessed in a comprehensive manner to promote quality of life. An interprofessional approach should be used for nutrition management. This module examines nutrition in the older adult with cancer in regards to nutritional assessment, risk factors, proper oral care, tips and support in managing nutrition effectively.

Educational objectives: 

Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to:

  • Utilize oral and nutritional assessments.
  • Describe the goals of nutritional therapy during chemotherapy.
  • Discuss physiologic conditions related to nutrition in the older adult with cancer.
  • Recognize the effect of these conditions on the nutritional status of the patient.
  • Identify nutritional needs and dietary preferences.
  • Discuss nutritional supplements.
  • Understand the benefits/drawbacks of nutrition and hydration at the end of life.
  • State pharmacologic interventions and vitamin and mineral supplements for end of life care.
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

Technical Requirements and Notes:

This learning module uses Adobe Flash media and may require you to add a browser "plug-in" in order to display properly. Most computers already have this free plug-in installed. But, if yours does not, it is very easy to download and install. Try the module first because the software is "smart" enough to detect the Flash player. If the module doesn't begin, you will be automatically prompted to download the plug-in.

The module contains links to external websites which will open in a new browser window. Your browser's back button will not return to the module, so these new windows should be closed.

In order to track your progress, you must create an account and fill out a brief demographic profile. Once the profile has been created, you can log directly into the course.

Date posted: 
Fri, 09/28/2012
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Fri, 09/28/2012
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
, and . Interprofessional Geriatric Oncology 3: The Older Adult Oncology Patient and Nutrition. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2012 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Interprofessional Geriatric Oncology 1: Risk Assessment Treatment Options in Older Adults with Cancer

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Intended Learner Audiences: 
Other Learning Resource Type: 
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

Sixty percent of new cancers are diagnosed in patients 65 years and older. Cancer is the leading cause of death for men and women age 60-79. Healthcare professionals are making strides in addressing this issue through comprehensive risk assessments and exams to identify the issue early; as well as provide the patient with treatment options for care. This module examines geriatric oncology, assessments and treatment options for older adults with cancer.

Educational objectives: 

Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to:

  1. Provide a geriatric perspective on cancer care
  2. Discuss the importance of individual risk assessment for cancer treatment options
  3. Discuss decision-making points for older adults with cancer and the cultural factors that influence decision-making.
  4. Recognize the legal and ethical concepts that influence health professionals ability to assist in decision-making with patients and families.
  5. Discuss the physiologic effects of cancer and cancer treatment on the nutritional status of older adults and provide methods to assess and offer nutritional support
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

Technical Requirements and Notes:

This learning module uses Adobe Flash media and may require you to add a browser "plug-in" in order to display properly. Most computers already have this free plug-in installed. But, if yours does not, it is very easy to download and install. Try the module first because the software is "smart" enough to detect the Flash player. If the module doesn't begin, you will be automatically prompted to download the plug-in.

The module contains links to external websites which will open in a new browser window. Your browser's back button will not return to the module, so these new windows should be closed.

In order to track your progress, you must create an account and fill out a brief demographic profile. Once the profile has been created, you can log directly into the course.

Date posted: 
Wed, 08/01/2012
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Wed, 08/01/2012
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
, , and . Interprofessional Geriatric Oncology 1: Risk Assessment Treatment Options in Older Adults with Cancer. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2012 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Geriatricized Clinical Skills Checklist

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

Our longitudinal, integrated curriculum focuses on the development of clinical practice behaviors that reflect geriatric care principles utilized across the lifespan. There are four principle areas: communication skills; functional assessment and intervention; social setting assessment and intervention; and therapeutic review and management. In the first two years of pre-clerkship training, all students learn history taking, physical examination, and professional communication behaviors through a behavioral checklist approach. Checklists for the complete medical history, complete physical examination, problem oriented examination, and chronic illness examination are provided. Through routine incorporation, the desired behaviors have two years of reinforced performance allowing creation of good practice habits. Subsequently, students carry these geriatricized guidelines for patient encounters into their required clinical rotations of the MS3, MS4 years of training. These habits of using geriatric principles across the lifespan are further reinforced by serving as the basis of the required Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) at the end of the MS1, MS2 and MS3 years of training.  

Educational objectives: 

Complete History Checklist: This behaviorally explicit checklist provides query examples for the novice to learn a comprehensive medical history encompassing history of present illness, functional history, past medical history, social history and family history.

Complete Physical Examination Checklist: This behaviorally explicit checklist provides information for the novice to learn a comprehensive head to toe physical examination with a review of system leading each section.

Problem Oriented Examination: This behaviorally explicit checklist provides information for MS1 to MS3 level of learners to conduct a problem oriented patient encounter for a patient presenting with a new symptom.

Chronic Illness Examination: This behaviorally explicit checklist provides information for MS1 to MS3 level of learners to conduct a chronic illness patient encounter. 

Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

The checklists provided are meant to be versatile and may be used individually or collectively, in part or in entirety, within a clinical skills course, during clerkship rotations and/or as part of an assessment process such as Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). An advantage of these behaviorally explicit checklists is that they facilitate conversations among faculty and students as to observable performance expectations. Students and faculty find viewing and scoring videos of performance an effective means of appreciating the objective nature of the criteria.  

Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

Granville L: Teaching clinical skills: a perfect opportunity for “stealth” geriatrics. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Geriatrics Society, Frederick, MD, May 2007. 

Date posted: 
Fri, 09/28/2012
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Fri, 09/28/2012
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Geriatricized Clinical Skills Checklist. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2012 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Screening Osteopathic Structural Exam for the Geriatric Patient

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Learning Resource Type: 
Product Information
Abstract: 

As our geriatric population continues to increase, physicians will evaluate more and more patients with muscoloskeletal complaints. This presentation demonstrates a screening Osteopathic structural examination modified for the geriatric patient. Screening exams allow the physician to efficiently determine the location of a significant somatic dysfunction(s) in a thorough comprehensive manner. The following screening structural exam is divided into two overall parts: a static and a dynamic portion. Dynamic includes range of motion testing as well as evaluation of gait. Once an area has been identified as having possible somatic dysfunction, the Osteopathic physician can perform a more specific palpatory evaluation segmentally or of a specific joint(s). 

Educational objectives: 
  1. Understand how an Osteopathic Structural Examination assists you in evaluating a patient's musculoskeletal complaints.
  2. Recognize which planes of motion are being evaluated by the different anatomical positions: anterior, posterior, lateral.
  3. Identify landmarks on posterior and lateral positions and how to interpret findings.
  4. Develop proper screening palpatory skills to evaluate the ROM in the spine.
  5. Use these tools to perform a more detailed segmental evaluation.
  6. Describe the purpose of Patrick's (FABERE) test.
  7. Recognize various posture and gaits and be familiar with the following types of gait: antalgic, Parkinsonian (shuffling), ataxic (wise-based).

 

Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 
Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

References:

  1. Musculoskeletal Exam-Stuart Williams D.O., Year 1 OMM Presentation, UNTHSC, Texas College of Ostepathic Medicine, 2008.
  2. Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine, 3rd Ed., Anthony G. CHila D.O. (editor), P 410-430.
  3. Osteopathic Principles in Practice, M.L.Kuchera & W.A. Kuchera, Greyden Press, 2nd Ed-revised, P 175-185, 499-512, 533-534.
  4. Foundations for Osteopathic Medicine, 2nd Ed, Robert Ward(editor), P 635-649.
Date posted: 
Thu, 05/23/2013
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Thu, 05/23/2013
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Screening Osteopathic Structural Exam for the Geriatric Patient. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2013 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Precepting Challenging Students

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Intended Learner Audiences: 
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
3
Abstract: 

This exercise is designed for use in small Preceptor groups led by a faculty tutor. Participants will learn by observing the videos, sharing personal experiences, and discussing precepting approaches. The exercise uses video clips of a trainee and Preceptor in a clinical setting. In each of the cases, the trainee has been assigned a patient, has performed a history and physical examination of the patient, and is now prepared to make an oral case presentation to the Preceptor. The Preceptor is ready to listen to the case presentation and give appropriate feedback on the presentation. For the purpose of this exercise, the Preceptor’s role is limited to the case presentation and feedback provision. It is assumed that the Preceptor will later go to the bedside with the trainee to examine the patient, and together they will arrive at a working differential diagnosis and management plan.

Educational objectives: 

The purpose of this exercise is to enhance Preceptor skills with challenging trainees. At the end of the exercise, Preceptors will be able to:

  • Communicate and set expectations for trainees’ performance
  • Analyze trainees’ difficulties in oral case presentations
  • Recognize and correct own improper precepting behavior and attitude
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate behavior and attitudes of challenging trainees   
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

Preceptorship is an essential component of medical education and clinical training. Precepting allows education to be individualized, links classroom knowledge to real patient management problems, and provides role modeling as the trainee develops knowledge, skills and attitudes for practice. In an idealized clinical practice teaching episode, the trainee performs the assessment and makes an oral case presentation to the Preceptor with a differential diagnosis and management plan outlined. The Preceptor refines the assessment and plan, and the trainee implements the plan with assistance as needed. As trainees gain experience with more patients over time, they are expected to increase their knowledge and skills, improve practice efficiency and effectiveness, and become increasingly independent in managing patient care. The Preceptor provides feedback and support to the student and evaluation data to both the student and course chair.

Although preceptorship is usually a positive experience for both teacher and trainee, problems occasionally arise. Sometimes this difficulty is related to poor student performance. Other problems may include poor communication between student and Preceptor, characteristics of the clinic or perhaps a poor match between the learning style of the trainee and the teaching style of the Preceptor. A “challenging student” may be frustrated, anxious, bored, overwhelmed, unprepared, distracted, ill, or have a true learning disability.  Errors in knowledge or skills are typically due to limited experience, unclear expectations, and inadequate feedback rather than the result of insufficient ability, interest, or care.

When presenting this material, it is important to consider adequate time allotted for the exercise. Completion of all three cases may require a workshop as long as 2.5 to 3 hours. If only one hour is available, it is more appropriate to focus on a single case, allowing adequate time for learning, group discussion and reflection.

This product can also be accessed at 
http://dev.medsch.ucla.edu/precepting/index.html
Date posted: 
Mon, 03/11/2013
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 03/11/2013
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Precepting Challenging Students. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2013 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

Team Based Geriatrics

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Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Intended Learner Audiences: 
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

The End of Rotation Evaluation Instrument assesses knowledge of teamwork skills, ability to apply knowledge of geriatric syndromes to problem-based scenarios, and attitudes toward interdisciplinary education. Attitudes toward interdisciplinary education are measured using a retrospective pre-test form of the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS).

Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

Scoring Guideline:

  • Section 1. Teamwork Knowledge. Aggregate Score 80% and above: Conclude students are obtaining the exposure to teamwork skills that is intended. Aggregate Score below 80%: Determine if there are any patterns in the missed items and address identified patterns.
  • Section 2. Geriatric Syndromes: Aggregate Score 80% and above: Conclude students are obtaining the knowledge of geriatric syndromes that is intended. Aggregate Score below 80%: Determine if there are any patterns in the missed items and address identified patterns.
  • Section 3. IEPS. For aggregate groups of 25 or more students, expect statistically significant changes in each of the three subscales. If a subscale does not change, look for patterns to be addressed.


We used the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) (Luecht, Madsen, Taugher, & Petterson, 1990; McFadyen, Maclaren, & Webster, 2007) to assess attitudes toward interdisciplinary education. We used a retrospective pre-test form of the IEPS. In a retrospective pre-test (RPT) design, participants rate and then compare their knowledge, skills, or behaviors immediately after an activity to the same knowledge, skills, or behaviors that they possessed within a specific time frame before the activity (Howard, 1980). I developed this form of the IEPS because the RPT design minimizes respondent burden, missing data, and response shift bias. Response shift bias is the tendency for an individual to overestimate their knowledge, skills, and behaviors in a pretest because their understanding of these topics is limited prior to the program intervention. By using the RPT design, respondents use the same frame of reference to judge their pretest and posttest attitudes, knowledge, and abilities (Pratt et al., 2000).

 

 

Howard, G. S. (1980). Response-shift bias: A problem in evaluating interventions with pre/post self-reports. Evaluation Review, 4(1), 93-106.
Luecht, R. M., Madsen, M. K., Taugher, M. P., & Petterson, B. J. (1990). Assessing professional perceptions: Design and validation of an interdisciplinary education perception scale. Journal of Allied Health, 19(2), 181-191.
McFadyen, A. K., Maclaren, W. M., & Webster, V. S. (2007). The interdisciplinary education perception scale (IEPS): An alternative remodelled sub-scale structure and its reliability. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21(4), 433-443.
Pratt, C. C., McGuigan, W. M., & Katzev, A. R. (2000). Measuring program outcomes: Using retrospective pretest methodology. American Journal of Evaluation, 21(3), 341-349.

 

 

Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
and . Team Based Geriatrics. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2011 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/208

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